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Knee

A problematic knee can be debilitating and may get in the way of your everyday activities. Many experience common knee complications associated with age such as osteoarthritis or due to sports injuries like a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or torn meniscus.

We have a team of highly skilled and experienced knee orthopaedics who are dedicated to providing the highest quality of care.

Avicenna Clinic is equipped with state-of-the-art technology and facilities, including advanced imaging equipment such as MRI, ultrasound and X-ray. This allows our orthopaedics to accurately diagnose and treat your knee condition.

Our orthopaedics take a patient-centred approach and will take the time to fully understand your condition, as well as listen to your concerns and expectations. They will then create a personalized treatment plan that fits your individual needs and goals, whether it is to recover from an injury, improve mobility and function, or manage chronic pain.

We also offer a wide range of treatment options, including physical therapy, medication, and surgery if necessary. This allows us to provide a comprehensive approach to care that addresses all aspects of your knee condition.

Our clinic also offers convenient appointment scheduling and flexible hours to fit your busy schedule.

We work closely with other specialists such as sports medicine specialists, pain management specialists and rehabilitation therapists to provide a multidisciplinary care for your knee.

Knee Anatomy

The knee is one of the most complex and important joints in the human body. It is made up of three bones: the femur (thigh bone), tibia (shin bone), and patella (knee cap). The femur and tibia are connected by the knee joint, which is lined by a layer of cartilage called the meniscus. This cartilage acts as a cushion between the bones and helps to absorb shock during movement.

The knee also has a number of ligaments and tendons that help to hold the joint together and provide stability. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) are two of the most important ligaments in the knee. They are located in the centre of the knee and help to prevent the femur from sliding too far forward or backward on the tibia.

The knee also has several muscles that are responsible for its movement and strength. The quadriceps muscle, located on the front of the thigh, is responsible for straightening the knee. The hamstring muscles, located on the back of the thigh, are responsible for bending the knee. The calf muscles, including the gastrocnemius and soleus, help to extend the knee.

In addition to these structures, the knee also has a number of bursae, which are small fluid-filled sacs that help to reduce friction and protect the joint during movement.

Problems with the knee can occur due to injury, overuse, or degeneration of the joint. Common knee injuries include sprains, strains, and tears of the ligaments and tendons.

To maintain healthy knee function, it is important to engage in regular physical activity and maintain a healthy weight. It is also important to use proper techniques when engaging in activities such as sports and exercise to avoid knee injuries. If you experience knee pain or discomfort, never forget to seek medical advice.

Conditions

Knee arthritis, also known as osteoarthritis, is a degenerative condition that causes pain and stiffness in the knee joint. It is caused by the wear and tear of the cartilage that cushions the bones of the knee joint. As the cartilage wears away, the bones rub together, causing pain and inflammation.

Symptoms of knee arthritis include stiffness, pain, and difficulty with activities such as walking, climbing stairs, or kneeling. The pain may be worse after sitting or standing for a long period of time, or after periods of inactivity. In advanced stages, knee arthritis can cause visible deformities in the joint, such as bowing or valgus knee.

Risk factors for knee arthritis include age, obesity, injury, and genetics. People who have a family history of osteoarthritis or who have had previous knee injuries are at a higher risk of developing the condition.

Children’s knee problems are a common concern for parents and caregivers. Some of the most common knee conditions in children include Osgood-Schlatter disease, Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).

Osgood-Schlatter disease is a common cause of knee pain in active children and adolescents. It occurs when the growth plate at the top of the shin bone (tibia) becomes irritated, causing pain and tenderness just below the kneecap. It is most common in children who participate in sports that involve running and jumping, such as soccer, basketball, and gymnastics.

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is another common knee problem in children, characterized by pain around the kneecap and behind it. It is caused by misalignment of the kneecap, which causes increased stress on the cartilage under the kneecap.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a form of arthritis that affects children under the age of 16. It causes inflammation and pain in one or more joints, which can lead to stiffness, limited range of motion, and difficulty with activities.

Knee cartilage injuries are a common type of knee injury that can cause pain and discomfort in the knee joint. Cartilage is a smooth, slippery tissue that covers the ends of the bones in the knee joint and helps to reduce friction and cushion the joint.

Knee cartilage injuries can occur as a result of trauma, such as a fall or a car accident, or as a result of overuse, such as in athletes or people who engage in high-impact activities. The most common types of knee cartilage injuries include torn meniscus, a condition in which the cartilage in the knee is torn, and chondromalacia, a condition in which the cartilage in the knee becomes worn and damaged.

A knee dislocation is a severe injury that occurs when the bones of the knee joint are forced out of alignment. It is considered a medical emergency and requires immediate attention.

The knee may appear visibly deformed and the individual may experience numbness or tingling in the affected leg. In some cases, the person may feel a popping or snapping sensation at the time of the injury.

Knee cartilage injuries are a common type of knee injury that can cause pain and discomfort in the knee joint. Cartilage is a smooth, slippery tissue that covers the ends of the bones in the knee joint and helps to reduce friction and cushion the joint.

Knee cartilage injuries can occur as a result of trauma, such as a fall or a car accident, or as a result of overuse, such as in athletes or people who engage in high-impact activities. The most common types of knee cartilage injuries include torn meniscus, a condition in which the cartilage in the knee is torn, and chondromalacia, a condition in which the cartilage in the knee becomes worn and damaged.

Treatment for a knee dislocation typically involves reduction (realigning the bones) of the joint and immobilization in a cast or brace to allow for proper healing. Surgery may be required in some cases to repair any damage to the ligaments, tendons, or cartilage of the knee joint.

Recovery from a knee dislocation can take several months, depending on the severity of the injury. Physical therapy may be necessary to regain strength and range of motion in the knee joint.

Knee ligament injuries are a common type of injury that occurs when the ligaments that support the knee joint are stretched, partially torn, or completely torn. The knee joint has four main ligaments: the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), and lateral collateral ligament (LCL).

The most common ligament injuries in the knee are the ACL and MCL. Other ligament injuries such as PCL and LCL injuries are less common, but can still cause severe pain.

An ACL injury occurs when the ligament is stretched or torn, often as a result of a sudden twisting motion or pivot. Symptoms of an ACL injury may include pain, swelling, and difficulty walking. MCL injuries are typically caused by a direct blow to the outside of the knee, and symptoms may include pain, swelling, and instability in the knee joint.

Knee tendon injuries refer to damage to the tendons that connect the muscles to the bones in the knee joint. These injuries can be caused by a number of factors such as overuse, trauma, or degeneration.

Patellar tendonitis, also known as jumper’s knee, is an overuse injury that affects the tendon that connects the kneecap (patella) to the shin bone (tibia). Quadriceps tendonitis is an overuse injury that affects the tendon that connects the quadriceps muscle to the kneecap.

Hamstring tendonitis is an overuse injury that affects the tendons that connect the hamstring muscles to the knee. Symptoms of hamstring tendonitis include pain and tenderness in the back of the knee, stiffness, and difficulty with activities such as running or jumping.

The kneecap, also known as the patella, is a small bone located at the front of the knee joint that helps to protect and support the knee. A kneecap dislocation occurs when the patella moves out of its normal position within the knee joint. This can be a traumatic injury, caused by a fall, a direct blow to the knee, or a sudden twisting motion of the knee.

It’s important to note that people who have had a kneecap dislocation are at a higher risk of re-dislocating the kneecap in the future. Therefore, physical therapy to improve muscle strength and stability around the knee is crucial to prevent future dislocations. Stabilization surgery may be required in case of recurrent dislocation.

A kneecap fracture, also known as a patella fracture, is a break or crack in the bone that forms the kneecap. The types of kneecap fractures are classified based on the severity of the injury and the way the bone is broken.

An open fracture is a serious type of kneecap fracture in which the broken bone punctures the skin. This type of fracture carries a higher risk of infection and requires immediate medical attention. While stable fracture is less severe in which the broken bone remains in its normal position. This type of fracture may be treated with rest, ice, and physical therapy.

A comminuted fracture is a complex type of kneecap fracture in which the bone is broken into multiple pieces. This type of fracture is often caused by high-energy injuries, such as car accidents.

A displaced fracture is a more where the broken bone is out of alignment. This type of fracture usually requires surgery to reposition the broken bone, and physical therapy is often needed to regain strength and range of motion in the knee.

Kneecap instability, also known as patellar instability, occurs when the kneecap (patella) is not properly aligned within the groove at the end of the thigh bone (femur) where it normally glides during movement. This can cause the kneecap to slide out of place, resulting in pain and discomfort, as well as an increased risk of knee joint damage.

There are several potential causes of kneecap instability, including congenital conditions, trauma, or overuse injuries. Treatment for kneecap instability typically begins with non-surgical options, such as physical therapy, bracing, and the use of anti-inflammatory medications.

Physical therapy can help to strengthen the muscles around the knee and improve the alignment of the kneecap, while bracing can provide additional support to help keep the kneecap in place. If non-surgical treatment options are not effective, surgery may be recommended to repair or reconstruct the structures that support the kneecap and improve its alignment.

The meniscus is a C-shaped piece of cartilage in the knee that acts as a cushion between the thigh bone and the shin bone. It helps to distribute weight and absorb shock in the joint. A meniscal tear is a common injury that occurs when the tissue of the meniscus is damaged. The tear can be caused by a sudden twisting motion, a forceful impact, or degeneration due to aging.

Meniscal tears can vary in size and location, with some being more severe than others. A small tear may not cause significant symptoms, while a larger tear can lead to pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the knee. In some cases, a person may not even be aware that they have a meniscal tear.

Loss of meniscal tissue can occur due to a tear that is not treated properly or one that is very severe. If the tear is not repaired, the damaged tissue may become frayed. This can make the knee less stable and more susceptible to further injury.

Knee injuries are a common concern for athletes and active individuals, as the knee joint is one of the most complex and heavily used in the body. One of the most common knee injuries in sports is a sprained ligament, which occurs when the ligaments that hold the knee joint together are stretched or torn. The most commonly sprained ligament in the knee is the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), which can be torn due to a sudden twisting motion or a direct impact.

Another common knee injury in sports is a meniscus tear, which occurs when the cartilage in the knee is damaged. Patellar tendonitis, also known as jumper’s knee, is an overuse injury that occurs when the tendon that connects the kneecap to the shinbone becomes inflamed. It is common in sports that involve jumping, such as basketball and volleyball.

Chondromalacia patella, also known as “runner’s knee,” is a condition in which the cartilage under the kneecap becomes damaged and irritated, causing pain and difficulty in moving the knee. It is common in sports that involve running and jumping.

In addition, knee dislocations and fractures can also occur due to high-impact trauma such as car accidents, falls and contact sports.

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